Instabilities, Waves and Turbulence
Natural and industrial flows, in geophysics, aeronautics or process engineering, are complex, unsteady, sometimes multiphase, and most often turbulent. Understanding and modeling these flows is a real challenge for both fundamental and practical reasons.
On a global scale, atmospheric and oceanic flows are subject to stratification and background rotation effects. These lead to the generation of internal waves, which have a profound influence on the flow dynamics, such as the emergence of eddies or coherent jets that can influence the mixing properties (heat, pollutants ...)
On a smaller scale, flows with interfaces (either between two liquids or between a liquid and a gas) provide other examples of such complex flows. The formation of ocean waves illustrates the wide range of open issues, from the origin of the first ripples generated by wind to their amplification to the mechanism of saturation and dissipation by wave breaking. Other examples are the coiling instability of "liquid ropes" that fall on a surface and the surprising morphology of the "liquid curtains" that form at the exit of a horizontal pipe.
In this research group, we develop model experiments in simple and controlled configurations that aim to reproduce these complex flows from the first stages of instability to fully turbulent situations.
Inertial waves in a rotating fluid
Inertial waves are emitted from a sinusoidal disturbance in a
homogeneous rotating fluid. The propagation of this wave is
dispersive and anisotropic. Visualization of this
phenomenon is achieved using a corotating Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV)
Kelvin wake or Mach cone?
The angle of the wake behind a duck or a ship is always 39 degrees,
independent of its velocity: this is the classical Kelvin wake.
But is this really the case?
A detailed analysis of a set of airborne images of ship wakes
from Google Earth shows that the wake angle rather follows a
law analogous to the Mach cone for supersonic airplanes. Why?
The two-dimensional structuration of a turbulent flow in a rotating frame
is a key mechanism for geophysical flows (ocean, atmosphere, rotating stars etc.)
Using the rotating platform Gyroflow, we measure the anisotropic energy flux responsible for this two-dimensional structuration.
Liquid rope coiling
If you like honey on your toast at breakfast, you are ready to perform a simple and beautiful fluid mechanics experiment. Plunge a spoon into the honey jar, and then hold it vertically several inches above the toast. The falling honey builds a whirling corkscrew-shaped structure - a phenomenon called "liquid rope coiling".
Torricelli's curtain: Morphology of laminar jets under gravity
While the form of a fluid jet issuing horizontally from an orifice
was first studied by Torricelli (1643), this classic problem in fluid
mechanics still holds surprises. When a laminar jet issues from the
end of a pipe, it divides into primary and secondary
jets with a thin vertical curtain of fluid connecting them.
We are currently using laboratory experiments and numerical
simulations to study this unexpected behavior.
Wind waves generation
How does wind create waves? This seemingly simple question has been the starting point of numerous theoretical, numerical, and experimental works of research. We approach this problem with a new experiment allowing to detect the very first deformations at the surface of a viscous fluid with an accuracy of a few microns.
Swirling a glass of wine
It is common knowledge that prescribing an orbital motion to a glass of wine
generates a rotating gravity wave that comes along with a swirling mean
flow. This mean flow rotates in the direction of the wave and recirculates
poloidaly (radially and vertically), thus permanently pushing new fluid to
the surface where it aerates and releases the wine's aromas.
Precisely the same kind of orbital shaking is used on a more professional
level in bioreactors for the cultivation of biological cells. We present here
new experiments to capture the physical mechanism of mean flow generation in
an orbital shaken fluid.
Gravity induced mixing of two miscible fluids in vertical and tilted tubes
The buoyant mixing of two fluids of different densities in a tilted tube is investigated. The fluids are initially in an unstable configuration (the heavier fluid is above the lighter fluid), and show a rich variety of phenomena, including stable counterflows, intermittency and fully turbulent mixing.
After the pioneering work of G. Eiffel (1912) the « Drag crisis » is now a well known phenomena of fluid mechanics for a bluff body moving at large velocity. During this crisis the drag force becomes, surprisingly, a decreasing function of the relative velocity. We have shown that at the drag crisis, non-up/down symmetrical bodies can also experience a strong "lift crisis", i.e. a sharp transition or even an inversion in their lift force.